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Postdoc:Tribochemical wear with relevance to nanolithography

Work Activities
Are you interested in simultaneously unraveling the fundamentals of wear and contributing to the solution of friction-related challenges in computer chip production?

At the Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography, we work with ASML on new processes to fabricate the electronic chips that power nearly every sector in the world. These chips are fabricated onto silicon wafers. During fabrication, nanometre scale relative displacements between the silicon wafer and the wafer positioner lead to unpredictable friction forces and wear which in turn cause in-plane deformations in the wafer, limiting the achievable feature size in chips.

While enormous progress has been made in fundamentally understanding wear, it remains striking that the most widely applied wear law (Archard’s law) is empirical and includes a proportionality constant that lacks a clear physical meaning but can vary over many orders of magnitude. Increasing evidence suggests that stiff and wear resistant materials, i.e. ceramics or diamond, undergo tribochemical, atomistic wear in which passivating species in the environment may play a crucial role. In this project, you will perform wear experiments on a recently developed instrument that enables customized wear experiments in controllable environment. The goal of the project is to provide insight into the industrially relevant wear behavior, leading to control over the wear behavior and its impact on positioning accuracy in nanolithography.

Qualifications

  • Candidates have a PhD degree in physics, or a related subject.
  • Candidates enjoy performing experiments and analysis to stepwise build a deeper understanding of complex physical mechanisms.
  • Candidates enjoy communicating and explaining the results of their work.
  • The ideal candidates have experience in using/developing instrumentation for mechanical/tribological testing.

Work environment
ARCNL performs fundamental research, focusing on the physics and chemistry involved in current and future key technologies in nanolithography, primarily for the semiconductor industry. While the academic setting and research style are geared towards establishing scientific excellence, the topics in ARCNL’s research program are intimately connected with the interests of the industrial partner ASML. The institute is located at Amsterdam Science Park and currently employs about 100 persons of which 65 are ambitious (young) researchers from all over the globe. www.arcnl.nl

Working conditions
The position is intended as full-time (40 hours / week, 12 months / year) appointment in the service of the Netherlands Foundation of Scientific Research Institutes (NWO-I) for the duration two years, with a salary in scale 10 (CAO-OI) and a range of employment benefits. ARCNL assists any new foreign Postdoc with housing and visa applications and compensates their transport costs and furnishing expenses.

We also offer:

  • Opportunity to work with world-wide unique wear setups.
  • Stimulating international institute in vibrant city.
  • Opportunity to grow your experimental, analysis and communication skills through interaction with the other group members as well as academic and industrial collaborators.
  • Supportive supervision and guidance.

The Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL) focuses on the fundamental physics and chemistry involved in current and future key technologies in nanolithography, primarily for the semiconductor industry. ARCNL is a public-private partnership between the Dutch Research Council (NWO), the University of Amsterdam (UvA), the VU University Amsterdam (VU), and associate partner the University of Groningen (RuG), and the semiconductor equipment manufacturer ASML. ARCNL is located at the Amsterdam Science Park, The Netherlands, and has a size of approximately 100 scientists and support staff. See also www.arcnl.nl

You will be embedded in the Contact Dynamics team at ARCNL, which investigates friction and wear in relation to positioning challenges in the semiconductor industry.

References:

  1. L. Peng, C.-C. Hsu, C. Xiao, D. Bonn and B. Weber. Controlling Macroscopic Friction through Interfacial Siloxane Bonding. Phys. Rev. Lett. 131 226201 (2023).
  2. F.-C. Hsia, S. Franklin, P. Audebert, A. M. Brouwer, D. Bonn and B. Weber. Rougher is more slippery: How adhesive friction decreases with increasing surface roughness due to the suppression of capillary adhesion. Phys. Rev. Res. 3, 043204 (2021).
  3. F.-C. Hsia, F. M. Elam, D. Bonn, B. Weber and S. E. Franklin. Wear particle dynamics drive the difference between repeated and non-repeated reciprocated sliding. Tribol. Int. 142, 105983 (2020).
  4. C. Leriche, C. Xiao, S. Franklin and B. Weber. From atomic attrition to mild wear at multi-asperity interfaces: The wear of hard Si3N4 repeatedly contacted against soft Si. Wear 528, 204975 (2023).

More information?
Dr. Bart Weber Group leader Contact Dynamics
E-mail: b.weber@arcnl.nl Phone: +31 20 8517100

Application
You can respond to this vacancy online via the button below.
Please send your:

  • Resume;
  • Motivation on why you want to join the group to work on this topic specifically (max. 1 page).

Applications without this motivation will not be taken into account. However, with this motivation your application will receive our full attention.

Online screening may be part of the selection

Diversity code
ARCNL is highly committed to an inclusive and diverse work environment: we want to develop talent and creativity by bringing together people from different backgrounds and cultures. We recruit and select on the basis of competencies and talents. We strongly encourage anyone with the right qualifications to apply for the vacancy, regardless of age, gender, origin, sexual orientation or physical ability.

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28-05-2024 ARCNL
PhD: Terahertz and optical metrology of semiconductor material changes

Work Activities
In semiconductor device manufacturing, metrology tools are required for wafer alignment, overlay and device inspection. As devices become more complicated and as stronger light sources are being used to get sufficient signal from samples covered with optically opaque layers, optical damage can occur. Catastrophic damage is easily detected. However, there are forms of non-catastrophic optical damage (or more generally, subtle material modifications) that are difficult to observe.

Recently, we have shown that subtle structural changes in a material can lead to subtle changes in the optical response of the material in visible/near-infrared part of the optical spectrum and that light emission at terahertz (THz) frequencies can yield equally relevant, complementary information. THz radiation in particular has been shown to be sensitive to nanoscale electrical conductivity.

Project goal
In this project you will use THz, near-infrared, and visible light to measure subtle changes in structure and conductivity induced by exposure to light (pulses). You will focus on materials currently relevant for the semiconductor industry, and on those relevant for future applications. The spatial scales at which these subtle light-induced changes occur is determined by the pump laser exposure area and can be in the sub-micrometer to tens of micrometer range. This is below the diffraction limit of THz light which has wavelengths in the several tens to hundreds of micrometer range. For this reason, you will explore near-field techniques when using THz light to measure conductivity. Higher (~ a few microns) resolution imaging will be used for visible/near-IR probing to measure small reflection changes induced by subtle morphological/conductivity changes induced by ultrashort laser pulses.

After you join our group, your goal is to design and execute optical and THz experiments to measure and understand the nature of the subtle material changes created by exposure to laser pulses. You will learn to work with high-power femtosecond lasers, with detectors and diagnostic tools like SEM, AFM and others, and learn how to analyze your data.

Qualifications
You have (or soon will have) a MSc degree in physics, chemistry, or materials science or equivalent, to satisfy the Dutch university requirement to enter a PhD program. Previous experience with lasers is not required but it would be a plus. An interest in non-linear optics, materials science and chemistry is needed, as are critical thinking, and creative problem-solving skills. Good verbal and written communication skills in English are required.

Work environment
The Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL) focuses on the fundamental physics and chemistry involved in current and future key technologies in nanolithography, primarily for the semiconductor industry. ARCNL is a public-private partnership between the Dutch Research Council (NWO), the University of Amsterdam (UvA), the VU University Amsterdam (VU), associate partner the University of Groningen (RuG), and the semiconductor equipment manufacturer ASML.

ARCNL is located at the Amsterdam Science Park, The Netherlands, and has a size of approximately 100 scientists and support staff. See also www.arcnl.nl.

About the Light/Matter Interaction group
The research activities of the Light/Matter Interaction group focus on the optical and terahertz response of materials within the context of photo-acoustics and light-induced damage. Ultrashort THz pulses play an increasingly larger role in discovering the response of materials to intense light, both by measuring the emission of THz light by materials after exposure to intense laser pulses, and by using THz light as a probe to measure light-induced material changes.

Working conditions
The position is intended as full-time (40 hours / week, 12 months / year) appointment in the service of the Netherlands Foundation of Scientific Research Institutes (NWO-I) for the duration of four years, with a starting salary of gross € 2,781 per month and a range of employment benefits. After successful completion of the PhD research a PhD degree will be granted at a Dutch University. Several courses are offered, specially developed for PhD-students. ARCNL assists any new foreign PhD-student with housing and visa applications and compensates their transport costs and furnishing expenses.

More information?
For further information about the position, please contact Paul Planken: p.planken@arcnl.nl.

Application
You can respond to this vacancy online via the button below.

Online screening may be part of the selection.

Diversity code
ARCNL is highly committed to an inclusive and diverse work environment: we want to develop talent and creativity by bringing together people from different backgrounds and cultures. We recruit and select on the basis of competencies and talents. We strongly encourage anyone with the right qualifications to apply for the vacancy, regardless of age, gender, origin, sexual orientation or physical ability.

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17-05-2024 ARCNL
Cathodoluminescence tomography for semiconductor device inspection and analysis

Work Activities
Did you know high-energy electrons can serve as efficient sources of optical excitation of matter? Our group has developed cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy, in which we use 1-30 keV electrons in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to excite nanomaterials. The oscillating electric field carried by the electron serves as a broadband (0-30 eV) excitation source with 5 nm spatial and 5 fs temporal resolution. This enables us to study excitations and localized modes of plasmons, 2D semiconductors, and a wide range of optical metamaterials. We study excitation dynamics through time-resolved spectroscopy, correlative measurements, holography and perform 3D tomography of complex geometries.

In this project, we will investigate the potential use of CL spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a tool for semiconductor metrology. We will collect angle-, polarization-, and time-resolved CL spectra on complex nanostructures composed of metal, semiconductor, and dielectrics, and aim to derive characteristic materials properties and feature sizes in 3D from the collected data sets. The project ranges from studies of simple model systems to complex structures like nanosheet transistors that are relevant for semiconductor manufacturing and uses tomographic techniques in combination with inverse design and machine learning tools. The aim is to determine the possibilities and limitations of the use of CL in semiconductor metrology and to develop practical workflows for CL tomography. The project will be carried out in close collaboration with the neighboring Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL) and the companies ASML and Delmic.

Qualifications

  • You have a master’s degree in physics, chemistry, materials science, or a related field.
  • You have very strong social, organizational, and communication skills.
  • You like to work both independently and in a collaborative team.

Work environment
AMOLF is a part of NWO-I and initiate and performs leading fundamental research on the physics of complex forms of matter, and to create new functional materials, in partnership with academia and industry. The institute is located at Amsterdam Science Park and currently employs about 140 researchers and 80 support employees. www.amolf.nl

The Photonic Materials group (www.erbium.nl), led by Prof. Albert Polman, studies light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. The group is composed of an international team of 8-10 PhD students, postdocs and master students that work in a collaborative atmosphere with many social group activities. Every week we hold group meeting, CL team meeting, and departmental colloquium and poster sessions, in addition to regular journal clubs. We also regularly organize an international group labtour.

Our group is part of AMOLFs Nanophotonics and Light Management in new Photovoltaic Materials research centers that are composed of 8 research groups (50 PhD students and postdocs) that share a state-of-the-art cleanroom for nanofabrication and characterization and many other facilities.

Working conditions

  • The working atmosphere at the institute is largely determined by young, enthusiastic, mostly foreign employees. Communication is informal and runs through short lines of communication.
  • The position is intended as full-time (40 hours / week, 12 months / year) appointment in the service of the Netherlands Foundation of Scientific Research Institutes (NWO-I) for the duration of four years
  • The starting salary is 2.781 Euro’s gross per month and a range of employment benefits.
  • After successful completion of the PhD research a PhD degree will be granted at a Dutch University.
  • Several courses are offered, specially developed for PhD-students.
  • AMOLF assists any new foreign PhD-student with housing and visa applications and compensates their transport costs and furnishing expenses.

More information?
For further information about the position, please contact:

Prof. dr. Albert Polman
E-mail: a.polman@amolf.nl
Phone: +31 (0)20-754 7100

Application
You can respond to this vacancy online via the button below.

Online screening may be part of the selection.

Diversity code
AMOLF is highly committed to an inclusive and diverse work environment: we want to develop talent and creativity by bringing together people from different backgrounds and cultures. We recruit and select on the basis of competencies and talents. We strongly encourage anyone with the right qualifications to apply for the vacancy, regardless of age, gender, origin, sexual orientation or physical ability.

AMOLF has won the NNV Diversity Award 2022, which is awarded every two years by the Netherlands Physical Society for demonstrating the most successful implementation of equality, diversity and inclusion (EDI).

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17-05-2024 AMOLF
PhD position: Laser-droplet interaction for EUV lithography (project MOORELIGHT)

Work Activities
This fully funded PhD position lies at the interface between fundamental physics and industrial application. It is part of a fully funded Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council titled “Next-Generation Light Source: Driving plasmas to power tomorrow’s nanolithography (MOORELIGHT)”.

Background
Advanced semiconductor devices are produced using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light at just 13.5nm wavelength. The recent revolutionary introduction of EUV lithography (EUVL) was the culmination of several decades of collaborative work between industry and science – a Project Apollo of the digital age. EUVL is powered by light that is produced in the interaction of high-energy CO2-gas laser pulses with molten tin microdroplets. The use of such lasers leads to low overall efficiency in converting electrical power to useful EUV light. Replacing gas lasers with much more efficient solid-state lasers may significantly improve efficiency, as well as output power. It is currently however unclear what laser wavelength, and what plasma ‘recipe’ should be used. This is because we lack understanding of the underlying complex physics. The goal of project MOORELIGHT is to deliver the missing insight.

Project goal
The EUV-emitting laser-produced plasmas are generated from tin targets carefully shaped (hydrodynamically deformed) by a series of laser “pre-pulses”. The ability to shape & control these tin targets is critical for efficient generation of EUV light for current and future light sources. Such abilities will originate from understanding the driving physical processes.

You will join a team of several PhD students and postdocs and have as an objective to design & execute experiments to understand the deformation and fragmentation of laser-impacted thin liquid tin targets: what really happens when a laser pulse hits a tin droplet? New fluid dynamics understanding will lead to new capabilities for laser-tailoring targets. These new capabilities will allow target tailoring to optimally couple to laser light to produce hot-and-dense plasma. You (and the rest of the team) will be responsible for the setup, execution, analysis, and interpretation of the experiments.

What does ARCNL offer you?

  • Responsibility over a setup including state-of-the-art droplet generators and laser system.
  • The ability to improve your experimental skills in extensive experimental campaigns that can be designed with a lot of freedom.
  • Collaboration with the in-house theory group, allowing you to develop a thorough understanding of the underlying target dynamics.
  • A wide range of existing (image) data analysis tools, allowing you to apply and develop your data analysis skills.
  • Cooperation within a large team of PhD students and postdoc and with a large industrial partner.

Qualifications
You have (or soon will have) a MSc physics or applied physics. Knowledge about fluid mechanics and/or experimental laser physics is advantageous. Programming skills (Python) are welcomed. Good verbal and written communication skills (in English) are required.

Work environment
ARCNL performs fundamental research, focusing on the physics and chemistry involved in current and future key technologies in nanolithography, primarily for the semiconductor industry. While the academic setting and research style are geared towards establishing scientific excellence, the topics in ARCNL’s research program are intimately connected with the interests of the industrial partner ASML. The institute is located at Amsterdam Science Park and currently employs about 100 persons of which 65 are ambitious (young) researchers from all over the globe. www.arcnl.nl

The research activities of the EUV Plasma Processes group aim at the atomic- and molecular-level understanding of the fundamental dynamics in the operation of contemporary and future plasma-based sources of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light for nanolithography.

Working conditions
The position is intended as full-time (40 hours / week, 12 months / year) appointment in the service of the Netherlands Foundation of Scientific Research Institutes (NWO-I) for the duration of four years, with a starting salary of gross € 2,781 per month and a range of employment benefits. After successful completion of the PhD research a PhD degree will be granted at a Dutch University. Several courses are offered, specially developed for PhD-students. A favorable tax agreement, the ‘30% ruling’, may apply to non-Dutch applicants. ARCNL assists any new foreign PhD-student with housing and visa applications and compensates their transport costs and furnishing expenses.

More information?
For further information about the position, please contact

Dr. Oscar Versolato
Group leader EUV Plasma Processes
E-mail: versolato@arcnl.nl
Phone: +31 (0)20-851 7100

Application
You can respond to this vacancy online via the button below.

Please send your:

  • Resume
  • Motivation letter on why you want to join the group (max. 1 page).

Applications will be evaluated on a rolling basis and as soon as an excellent match is made, the position will be filled.

Online screening may be part of the selection.

Diversity code
ARCNL is highly committed to an inclusive and diverse work environment: we want to develop talent and creativity by bringing together people from different backgrounds and cultures. We recruit and select on the basis of competencies and talents. We strongly encourage anyone with the right qualifications to apply for the vacancy, regardless of age, gender, origin, sexual orientation or physical ability.

Commercial activities in response to this ad are not appreciated.

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02-05-2024 ARCNL
PhD- student: Resolving Surface Reactions in Plasma Catalysis (SURPLAS)

Work Activities
Surface reactions on metal model catalysts in plasma environment
Activation of molecules in a plasma can form the basis for efficient chemical reactions making direct use of electrical energy. The interaction of plasma-activated species with a catalyst enhances the efficiency of these reactions. However, at present the active state of catalyst surfaces in plasma is unknown, limiting the impact of plasma catalysis by inhibiting the design of dedicated plasma catalysts. This PhD position links surface science and plasma catalysis, aiming to understand the active state of a surface live during plasma exposure. As a PhD student, you will use a unique approach combining surface-sensitive spectroscopy techniques with highly reactive plasma environment to resolve the critical steps of plasma-assisted reactions at surfaces. This PhD position is part of a fully funded Starting Grant from the European Research Council entitled “Resolving surface reactions in plasma catalysis: Towards rational catalyst design (SURPLAS)” at the Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL).

Project goal
In the SURPLAS project, we will determine the surface reaction mechanisms of catalysts in plasma and demonstrate the rational design of plasma catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation. As a PhD student, you will compare the interaction of catalytically active metals favoring different products and determine the details of reaction pathways at the surface. You will learn to prepare atomically clean surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and perform spectroscopy experiments to determine their active state live during exposure to plasma. Using photoelectron spectroscopy, you will analyze the surface composition and oxidation state of the active surface, allowing conclusions on the reaction mechanism. Infrared absorption spectroscopy will enable you to identify the key reaction intermediates of plasma-catalytic reactions.

Qualifications
You have a university degree in physics, physical chemistry, or a related field that satisfies the Dutch university requirement to enter into a PhD program.
Good verbal and written communication skills (in English) are required.
Prior experience with surface science, ultra-high vacuum, and spectroscopy techniques is considered an advantage for the project.

Work environment
The Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL) focuses on the fundamental physics and chemistry involved in current and future key technologies in nanolithography, primarily for the semiconductor industry. ARCNL is a public-private partnership between the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), the University of Amsterdam (UvA), the Vrije Universiteit (VU) Amsterdam and the semiconductor equipment manufacturer ASML. ARCNL is located at the Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands (see also www.arcnl.nl).
The research activities of the Materials and Surface Science for EUV Lithography group aim at the atomic-scale understanding of surface processes in challenging environments, such as plasmas, high light intensities, and high temperatures.

Working conditions
The position is intended as full-time (40 hours / week, 12 months / year) appointment in the service of the Netherlands Foundation of Scientific Research Institutes (NWO-I) for the duration of four years, with a starting salary of gross
€ 2.781 per month and a range of employment benefits. After successful completion of the PhD research a PhD degree will be granted at a Dutch University. Several courses are offered, specially developed for PhD-students. A favorable tax agreement, the ‘30% ruling’, may apply to non-Dutch applicants. ARCNL assists any new foreign PhD-student with housing and visa applications and compensates their transport costs and furnishing expenses.

More information?
Dr. Roland Bliem
Head of the Materials and Surface Science for EUV Lithography group
E-mail: r.bliem@arcnl.nl
Phone: +31- 20 851 7100

Application
You can respond to this vacancy online on the ARCNL webpage.
Please send your:

  • Resume;
  • Motivation why you want to perform the outlined research (max. 1 page).

It is important to us to know why you want to join our team and why you are interested in this project. This means that we will only consider your application if it includes your motivation letter.

Online screening may be part of the selection.

Commercial activities in response to this ad are not appreciated.

Diversity code
ARCNL is highly committed to an inclusive and diverse work environment: we want to develop talent and creativity by bringing together people from different backgrounds and cultures. We recruit and select on the basis of competencies and talents. We strongly encourage anyone with the right qualifications to apply for the vacancy, regardless of age, gender, origin, sexual orientation or physical ability.

Commercial activities in response to this ad are not appreciated.

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02-05-2024 ARCNL